Estimating the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus infection among adults in the United States: A meta-analysis

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Background and aims: Suboptimal awareness and low rates of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) testing contribute to underdiagnosis and gaps in accurate estimates of U.S. HDV prevalence. We aim to provide an updated assessment of HDV prevalence in the U.S. using a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis approach.
Methods: A comprehensive literature review of articles reporting HBsAg seroprevalence and anti-HDV prevalence was conducted to calculate country-specific rates and pooled prevalence of CHB and HDV using meta-analyses. Country-specific CHB and HDV rate estimates were combined with number of foreign-born (FB) persons in the U.S. in 2022 from U.S. Census Bureau to estimate total numbers of FB with CHB and HDV, respectively. These estimates were further combined with updated estimates of U.S.-born persons with CHB and HDV to yield the total number of persons with CHB and HDV.
Results: In 2022, we estimated 1.971 million (M) (95% CI 1.547-2.508) persons with CHB; 1.547 M (95% CI 1.264-1.831) were FB and 0.424 M (95% CI: 0.282-0.678) were U.S.-born. The weighted average HDV prevalence among FB persons in the U.S. was 4.20% (64 938 [95% CI 33055-97 392] persons), among whom 45% emigrated from Asia, 25% from Africa, and 14% from Europe. When combined with updated estimates of U.S.-born persons with HDV, we estimate 75 005 (95% CI: 42187-108 393) persons with HDV in the U.S.
Conclusions: Including both FB and U.S.-born persons, we estimated that 1.971 M and 75 005 persons were living with CHB and HDV, respectively, in the U.S. in 2022


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Liver International