Document Type

Review Article


Medical College Pakistan; Gastroenterology


Hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver and is commonly due to infection with The hepatotropic viruses - hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Hepatitis carries one of the highest disease burdens globally and has caused significant morbidity and mortality among different patient populations. Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic or acute flu-like illness to acute liver failure or chronic liver disease, characterized by jaundice, hepatomegaly and ascites among many other signs. Eventually, this can lead to fibrosis (cirrhosis) of the liver parenchyma and carries a risk of development into hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B and C are most notorious for causing liver cirrhosis; in 2019, an estimated 296 million people worldwide had chronic hepatitis B infection and 58 million are currently estimated to have chronic hepatitis C, with 1.5 million new infections of both hepatitis B and C, occurring annually. With the help of latest serological biomarkers and viral nucleic acid amplification tests, it has become rather simple to efficiently screen, diagnose and monitor patients with hepatitis, and to commence with appropriate antiviral treatment. More importantly, the development of vaccinations against some of these viruses has greatly helped to curb the infection rates. Whilst there has been exceptional progress over the years in the management of viral hepatitis, many hurdles still remain which must be addressed in order to proceed towards a hepatitis-free world. This review will shed light on the origin and discovery of the hepatitis viruses, the global epidemiology and clinical symptoms, diagnostic modalities, currently available treatment options, the importance of prevention, and the journey needed to move forward towards the eradication of its global disease burden.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Hepatic medicine : evidence and research

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License