Document Type

Review Article

Department

Gastroenterology; Paediatrics and Child Health

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered an emergent source of viral hepatitis worldwide, with an increasing burden of jaundice, liver failure, extrahepatic illnesses, and deaths in developed countries. With the scarcity of data from efficient animal models, there are still open-ended questions about designing new models to study pathogenesis, types, virology, and evolution of these viruses. With an emphasis on available data and updates, there is still enough information to understand the HEV life cycle, pathogen interaction with the host, and the valuation of the role of vaccine and new anti-HEV therapies. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) preferred to stress prevention and control measures of HEV infections in animals, zoonotic transmission, and foodborne transmission. It is being reviewed that with current knowledge on HEV and existing prevention tools, there is an excellent room for in-depth information about the virus strains, their replication, pathogenicity, and virulence. The current knowledge set also has gaps regarding standardized and validated diagnostic tools, efficacy and safety of the vaccine, and extrahepatic manifestations specifically in pregnant females, immunocompromised patients, and others. This review highlights the areas for more research exploration, focusing on enlisted research questions based on HEV infection to endorse the need for significant improvement in the current set of knowledge for this public health problem.

Publication

JGH Open

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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