Document Type



Community Health Sciences; Gastroenterology; Internal Medicine; Nephrology


Background: In dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, little evidence available from Pakistan.
Objective: The study aims to determine the frequency and risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 22 November 2016 and 30 June 2018. Adults of age between 18 and 90 years who attended the out-patient department due to abdominal discomfort, pain, fullness, and bloating who underwent upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were enrolled after taking informed consent. Patients with celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, taking alcohol, pregnant women and lactating mothers, known cases of hepatitis B and C, and history of recent antibiotic use were excluded. Data on age, gender, smoking, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were collected. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed through ultrasonography. Helicobacter pylori infection was detected using a carbon urea breath test.
Results: A total of 698 patients were screened for eligibility, and 399 (57.2%) had Helicobacter pylori infection and were enrolled in the study after consent. The median age was 50.1 (interquartile range = 14.5) years and 209 (52.4%) were males. Frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with Helicobacter pylori dyspeptic patients was 153 (38.3%). Factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the presence of Helicobacter pylori were dyslipidemia 7.38 (95% confidence interval = 2.4-22.71), type 2 diabetes mellitus 5.96 (95% confidence interval = 1.86-19.07), hypertension 3.0 (95% confidence interval = 1.21-7.45), and moderate gastritis 2.81 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.59).
Conclusion: The frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Helicobacter Pylori dyspeptic patients was 38.3%. Male gender, dyslipidemia, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and moderate gastritis were associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

SAGE Open Medicine

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License