Clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis in Pakistani adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Document Type



Diabetes/Endocrinology and Metabolism


The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in Pakistani adult population with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all adult patients admitted with a diagnosis of DKA and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and followed their clinical course and outcome. Follow-up data were obtained by chart review or telephone contact where necessary.Results: Fifty-seven patients fulfilled criteria for inclusion in the study. Their mean age was 48 +/- 7 years. The mean body mass index was 25.5 +/- 6.2 kg/m2. Forty-nine had a prior history of Type 2 DM but DKA was the initial presentation in 14%. Nine were on no treatment, 40 were using oral hypoglycaemic agents and eight were on insulin. A history of prior DKA was noted in eight patients. Infections were the most common precipitating factor (63%). There were 12 deaths. Follow-up after a period ranging between 12 and 43 months revealed that 30/45 patients remained on OHA without recurrence of DKA.CONCLUSION: This report highlights the need for the growing recognition of DKA occurring in adults with Type 2 DM in the South Asian population. Mortality rates are unacceptably high but the majority of survivors remain insulin independent.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Diabetic Medicine