Document Type



Diabetes/Endocrinology and Metabolism; Department of Medicine


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that has become a major health care concern, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. Lifestyle modification and appropriate pharmacotherapy are shown to improve blood glucose levels, lipid abnormalities and blood pressure. It is not known how many patients adhere to advice and drugs prescribed. This study aimed to determine adherence to lifestyle and therapeutic advice. Methods: A cross sectional hospital based study was conducted among patients attending the diabetic clinic at the Aga Khan University Hospital, using a structured questionnaire. Adult patients with T2DM and with at least one year duration of diabetes were included in the study. Results: Participants were aged between 32 and 92 years old with a mean age of 55.7 years old (SD ± 10.7). Mean duration of diabetes was 10.7 years old (SD ± 7.7). Majority (94%) of the patients were literate. Around half (47.3%) of the patients have had achieved glycemic target (HbA1c < 7%). Above target glycemic control was more common among patients with ischemic heart disease (68.1%), neuropathy (64.8%) and those on insulin (62.5%). Self-reported non-adherence for blood sugar monitoring (9.5%), physi cal activity (61.7%), tobacco use (43.4%) and foot care (43.9%) were noted. About 25% of the participants were not fully adherent to dietary advice. None of the patients from our study reported non-ad- herence to medications. Good adherence to physical activity was found in males with college degree. The highest percentage of tobacco use (33.3%) was reported among businessmen. Conclusion: We noted low adherence to advice for physical activity, tobacco use and SMBG, but a high adherence to prescribed medications and insulin. This was a selected group visiting a teaching hospital. This will need to be studied further in the community and efforts are required to motivate patients.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Diabetes Mellitus.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.