Document Type



Diabetes/Endocrinology and Metabolism


OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes according to three commonly used operational definitions {World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation( IDF)}. To evaluate the agreement between these classifications in the Pakistani cohort.

METHODS: Data was collected retrospectively of 210 patients with type 2 diabetes visiting outpatient clinics of one of the large tertiary care hospitals at Karachi, Pakistan between June 2008 to November 2008.

RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 81.4% (WHO), 86.7 % (IDF) and 91.9 % (NCEP ATPIII). The degree of agreement (kappa statistic) was found to be highest among IDF & NCEP ATPIII (0.728) as compared to (0.436 & 0.417) between WHO & ATP and WHO & IDF respectively. The most significant predictors for metabolic syndrome were found out to be female gender OR= 8.74 95% CI 1.51-50.53, low HDL cholesterol levels OR = 0.89 95% CI 0.84-0.94 and high systolic blood pressure OR= 1.06 95% CI 1.009-1.11.

CONCLUSION: Our study results suggested that NCEP ATPIII and IDF are the most reliable criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients, with NECP capturing more patients in comparison to IDF definition. The alarmingly high frequency of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes found in this study suggests that primary prevention strategies should be initiated earlier and early in this ethnic group and our health care system should be geared up to cope with this deadly quartet.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association