Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: prevalence and risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Urban District of Karachi, Pakistan.

Document Type






This study aimed to explore the prevalence of, and factors associated with, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (UDM) in a community setting in Pakistan.


A single-center, cross-sectional study, conducted in a community-based specialized care center (SCC) for diabetes in District Central Karachi, in 2003, registered 452 type 2 DM participants, tested for HbA1c and interviewed face-to-face for other information. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with UDM.


Prevalence of UDM among diabetes patients was found to be 38.9% (95% CI: 34.4-43.4%). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that age <50 years (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), being diagnosed in a hospital (vs. a clinic) (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8), diabetes information from a doctor or nurse only (vs. multiple sources) (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), higher monthly treatment cost (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6; for every extra 500 PKR), and higher consumption of tea (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.2; for every 2 extra cups) were independently associated with UDM.


The prevalence of UDM was approximately 39% among persons with type 2 diabetes visiting a community based SCC for diabetes. Modifiable risk factors such as sources of diabetes information and black tea consumption can be considered as potential targets of interventions in Karachi.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Diabetes research and clinical practice.