Efficacy and tolerability of semaglutide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: Experience of a tertiary care hospital, Pakistan

Document Type



Diabetes/Endocrinology and Metabolism; Medicine; Paediatrics and Child Health


Background: Semaglutide, a Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is highly effective as an anti-diabetic medication along with additional benefits of significant reduction in cardiovascular events and weight.
Objectives: There is a lack of reliable evidence confirming the benefits of Semaglutide in the Pakistani cohort. Our study aims to ascertain the efficacy of Semaglutide in the Pakistani cohort and patient satisfaction.
Methods: An ambi-directional cohort study was conducted from August 2022 to January 2023 at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. A chart review was done for all patients with Type 2 diabetes who were prescribed Semaglutide, and baseline data was recorded. Patients were followed prospectively in the endocrinology clinics after at least 3 months for the change in HbA1c, BMI, adverse effects profile, treatment satisfaction questionnaire for medications (TSQM-9) and medication effect score. Mean + STD or median with IQR were computed for continuous data, while categorical variables and percentages were measured. The association between variables was assessed by applying the chi-square test.
Results: A total of 112 patients were recruited who took the medication for at least 3 months. The mean age of the patients was 50.9 ± 10.5 years with 51.2% females. The mean difference in weight, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and medication effect score were decreasing from baseline to follow-up (-4.0 kg, -1.5 kg/m2, -23.1 mg/dl, -1.2%, -0.4) respectively. A decrease in appetite was reported in 72.7% of the participants. The major adverse effects observed were dyspepsia (21.4%) followed by nausea (20.5%) and constipation (19.6%). Medication was discontinued in 9.8% of patients due to gastrointestinal side effects. The majority (72.3%) of patients were satisfied with their medication.
Conclusion: Semaglutide is effective in reducing HbA1c and weight in Pakistani population with measurable tolerability and patient satisfaction.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Clinical Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes