Cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent quality improvement care model for diabetes in South Asia: The CARRS randomized clinical trial

Document Type



Diabetes/Endocrinology and Metabolism; Medicine


Objectives: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent strategy versus usual care in people with type 2 diabetes in South Asia.
Design: Economic evaluation from healthcare system and societal perspectives.
Setting: Ten diverse urban clinics in India and Pakistan.
Participants: 1146 people with type 2 diabetes (575 in the intervention group and 571 in the usual care group) with mean age of 54.2 years, median diabetes duration: 7 years and mean HbA1c: 9.9% (85 mmol/mol) at baseline.
Intervention: Multicomponent strategy comprising decision-supported electronic health records and non-physician care coordinator. Control group received usual care.
Outcome measures: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per unit achievement in multiple risk factor control (HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol) and SBP <130/80 mmHg or LDLc <2.58 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)), ICERs per unit reduction in HbA1c, 5-mmHg unit reductions in systolic BP, 10-unit reductions in LDLc (mg/dl) (considered as clinically relevant) and ICER per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. ICERs were reported in 2020 purchasing power parity-adjusted international dollars (INT$). The probability of ICERs being cost-effective was considered depending on the willingness to pay (WTP) values as a share of GDP per capita for India (Int$ 7041.4) and Pakistan (Int$ 4847.6).
Results: Compared to usual care, the annual incremental costs per person for intervention group were Int$ 1061.9 from a health system perspective and Int$ 1093.6 from a societal perspective. The ICER was Int$ 10,874.6 per increase in multiple risk factor control, $2588.1 per one percentage point reduction in the HbA1c, and $1744.6 per 5 unit reduction in SBP (mmHg), and $1271 per 10 unit reduction in LDLc (mg/dl). The ICER per QALY gained was $33,399.6 from a societal perspective.
Conclusions: In a trial setting in South Asia, a multicomponent strategy for diabetes care resulted in better multiple risk factor control at higher costs and may be cost-effective depending on the willingness to pay threshold with substantial uncertainty around cost-effectiveness for QALYs gained in the short term (2.5 years). Future research needs to confirm the long-term cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial intervention for diabetes care in diverse healthcare settings in LMICs


Volume, issue, and pagination are not provided by the author/publisher

Publication (Name of Journal)

Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association