Diabetes/Endocrinology and Metabolism
Background: Chronic exposure to high levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) leads to metabolic complications, most importantly dysglycemia in the form of diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes. Dysglycemia if diagnosed early in the course of the disease can decrease complications. Treatment modalities in the form of surgery and medical therapy have varied impacts on glucose metabolism.
Objective: To determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose in Pakistani patients with acromegaly and to establish the impact of the intervention (surgery/medical) on glucose metabolism.
Methods: This study was a retrospective review of patient records. Eighty-nine patients fulfilling the Endocrine Society criteria for acromegaly diagnosis were included. A data of baseline, GH, IGF-1 level, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and random blood glucose (RBS) levels were reviewed before and after the intervention (surgery/medical therapy). Normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were defined based on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Patients were grouped into normoglycemic (NGT) and dysglycemic (IFG, IGT, and DM) based on FBG, RBS, and HbA1C.
Results: Major risk factors for dysglycemia included age (15-45 years), male sex (33.70%), obesity (45.7%), and macroadenoma (77.52%). Both mean GH levels (58.29 vs. 54.36 ng/dl) and IGF-1 levels (862.98 vs. 824.32 ng/dl) were higher among the normoglycemic than dysglycemia. Pre-surgery NGT, IFG, IGT, IFG, and IGT/DM combined were found in 48.31%, 5.61%, 1.1%, 5.61%, and 39.32% of the subjects respectively. Post-surgery, HbA1C improved in 79.5%, deteriorated in 6.8%, and remained the same in 13.6%. Similarly, it improved in 67% post-medical therapy. Both FBG and RBS improved post-surgery and medical therapy. Further, the number of anti-diabetic drugs used also decreased post-surgery.
Conclusion: Dysglycemia is more common among patients with acromegaly as compared to the general population and tends to be poorly controlled in untreated acromegaly. Glycemic control improves significantly after surgery and medical therapy.
Khan, S. A.,
(2021). Patterns of abnormal glucose metabolism in acromegaly and impact of treatment modalities on glucose metabolism. Cureus, 13(3), e13852.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_med_diabet_endocrinol_metab/103
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