Outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention at a joint commission international accredited hospital in a developing country -- can good results, possibly similar to the west, be achieved?

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Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the treatment of choice following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). There is limited adoption and a paucity of data on outcomes following primary PCI in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe the procedural and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PCI for STEMI at a Joint Commission InternationalAccreditation (JCIA) certified hospital in Pakistan and make a comparison with outcomes from the West.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 277 consecutive patients undergoing primary PCI between January 2001 and December 2005 were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included preceding fibrinolytic therapy and STEMI due to stent thrombosis. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed. The primary outcome was mortality.

Results: Procedural success was 97.1%. Inhospital mortality was 8.3% (43.9% in cardiogenic shock, 2.1% in non-shock patients), comparing very favorably with the published literature from developed countries. Multivariate predictors of death included (hazards ratio, 95% confidence interval) age (1.42 [1.14-1.76]), mechanical ventilation (8.35 [2.82-24.73]), cardiogenic shock (2.80 [1.04-7.55]), prior CABG (9.78 [1.15-83.13]) and ejection fraction (0.96 [0.92-0.99]).

Conclusion: We conclude that excellent outcomes for a critical illness like STEMI can be achieved in a developing country at a JCIA-certified hospital, possibly similar to those seen in the West. There is a strong need for making the practice of primary PCI more widespread in developing nations. More outcomes data are needed from similar hospitals in the region to determine whether our results are generalizable.


The Journal of Invasive Cardiology