Premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: What have we learned recently?

Document Type



Office of the Provost; Cardiology


Purpose of review: In contrast to patients with non-premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), patients with premature ASCVD have not observed a similar decline in cardiovascular mortality and recurrent adverse events. We sought to review the underlying risk factors, potential gaps in medical management, associated outcomes, and tools for risk prognostication among patients with premature ASCVD.
Recent findings: In addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia), non-traditional risk factors such as chronic inflammatory conditions, recreational drug use, genetics, and pregnancy-related complications play a key role in development and progression of premature ASCVD. Patients with premature ASCVD, and especially women, receive less optimal medical management as compared to their non-premature counterparts. There is an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among young adults. Hence, this population remains at an elevated risk for premature ASCVD and subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. Future studies evaluating different risk assessment tools and focusing on young patients across all three major domains of ASCVD are needed.


Pagination is not provided by the author/publisher. This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Current Atherosclerosis Reports