Trends in sleep apnea and heart failure related mortality in the United States from 1999 to 2019

Document Type





National estimates of deaths related to both heart failure (HF) and sleep apnea (SA) are not known. We evaluated the trends in HF and SA related mortality using the CDC-WONDER database in adults aged ≥25 years in the US. All deaths related to HF and SA as contributing or underlying causes of death were queried. Between 1999 and 2019, there were a total of 6,484,486 deaths related to HF, 204,824 deaths related to SA, and 53,957 deaths related to both. There was a statistically significant increase in the age-adjusted mortality rate (AAMR) for both SA-related (average annual percent change [AAPC] 8.2%) and combined HF and SA- related (AAPC 10.1 %) deaths. Men had consistently higher AAMRs compared with women, and both groups had a similar increasing trend in AAMR. Non-Hispanic (NH) Black individuals had the highest HF and SA-related AAMR, followed by NH White and Hispanic/Latino individuals. Adults aged >75 years consistently had the highest AAMR with the steepest increase (AAPC 11.1%). In conclusion, HF and SA-related mortality has significantly risen over the past two decades with the elderly, men, and NH Black at disproportionately higher risk.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Current Problems in Cardiology