Noise exposure and cardiovascular health

Chayakrit Krittanawong, NYU Langone Health and NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY
Yusuf Kamran Qadeer, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX
Richard B. Hayes, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY
Zhen Wang, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
Salim S. Virani, Aga Khan University
Marianne Zeller, Université de Bourgogne-Franche Comté, Dijon, France
Payam Dadvand, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
Carl J. Lavie, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA

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Noise is considered an environmental stressor adversely affecting well-being and quality of life, inter-individual communications, and attention and cognitive function and inducing emotional responses, corresponding to noise annoyance. In addition, noise exposure is associated with non-auditory effects including worsening mental health, cognitive impairments, and adverse birth outcomes, sleep disorders, and increased annoyance. An accumulating body of evidence has indicated that traffic noise is also associated with CVD, through multiple pathways. It has been shown that psychological stress and mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety have a negative impact on the development of cardiovascular diseases and outcomes. Likewise, reduced sleep quality and/or duration has been reported to increase sympathetic nervous system activity, which can predispose to conditions like hypertension and diabetes mellitus, known risk factors for CVD. Finally, there seems to be a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis secondary to noise pollution that also results in an increased risk of CVD. The World Health Organization has estimated that the number of DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) lost resulting from environmental noise in Western Europe ranges from 1 to 1.6 million, making noise the second major contributor to the burden of disease in Europe, only after air pollution. Thus, we sought to explore the relationship between noise pollution and risk of CVD