Sex-stratified outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention: A tertiary care experience

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Background: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is an acute cardiac manifestation that requires immediate revascularization preferably through primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study aims to describe gender stratified outcomes and epidemiological profile of STEMI patients undergoing treatment at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: A 5-year, retrospective analysis of hospital records was undertaken on confirmed STEMI patients admitted between 2010 and 2014, undergoing primary PCI. Information was retrieved on demographic variables, risk factors, total ischemia time, door to balloon time, angiographic findings, and treatment strategy and in-hospital outcomes.
Results: A total of 603 patients were available for analysis. Mean age of the participants was 58 ± 11 years, with 78.6% being males. The most common risk factors were hypertension (48.1%), diabetes (37%), and smoking (22.2%). Gender stratified analysis revealed poorer clinical presentation and prolonged ischemia time among women when compared to men (410 vs. 310 min, respectively). Total in-hospital mortality was 9.6% and was higher in women (19.3%), patients with non-anterior infarction (12%), Killip class >2 (39%), advanced age (14.6%), and multi-vessel disease (12%).
Conclusion: Our study describes the common risk factors and treatment outcomes for STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. In-hospital mortality and total ischemia time were higher among women compared to men in our study. Moreover, the risk profile, treatment related complications, and outcomes were poorer in women compared to men. We suggest further research to investigate the effect of prolonged ischemia time on long-term clinical outcomes.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals