Drug-eluting balloon for management of coronary in-stent restenosis in a south Asian population: Experience from a tertiary-care hospital in Pakistan

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Background: Emerging evidence suggests that the South Asian (SA) population has an increased rate of in-stent stenosis (ISR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when compared with other ethnicities. Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) have emerged as a viable option for the treatment of ISR. However, data describing the outcomes of DEB-PCI in the SA population are limited. Since the magnitude of the problem is high in the SA population, it is essential to evaluate the outcomes of DEB-PCI for ISR.
Methods: In this cohort study, we investigated the incidence of target-lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) after PCI with DEB for ISR at 1 year and at long-term follow-up in Pakistani patients. From January 2010 to January 2019, a total of 147 ISR lesions in 112 patients were treated with DEB-PCI at our center.
Results: The incidence of clinically driven TLR and MACE after a 1-year follow-up was 15.2% and 16.1%, respectively. At mean long-term follow-up of 2.73 ± 2.14 years, the TLR and MACE rates were 26.8% and 35.7%, respectively. The major predictors for TLR were diffuse and occlusive ISR types, DEB for a recurrent restenosis lesion, and the presence of ≥3 traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Conclusions: The high rates of follow-up TLR and MACE reported in this study may suggest that the outcomes of DEB-PCI for ISR in the SA population may be unsatisfactory. With the increasing use of DEBs, it is imperative to further investigate DEB-PCI outcomes in the SA population with large, prospective studies.


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Journal of Invasive Cardiology