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Background: Patients with mitral stenosis (MS) are more prone to develop left atrial (LA) thrombus. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the frequency of LA thrombus on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with MS.
Methods: In this study, we included patients diagnosed with MS undergoing TTE at the echocardiography department of the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan. The severity of MS was classified based on the mitral valve area (MVA) as follows: very severe: MVA of ≤1.0 cm2; severe: MVA of ≤1.5 cm2; and mild to moderate: MVA of >1.5 cm2. The LA thrombus was observed and noted on TTE.
Results: A total of 256 MS patients were included in this study, out of which 46.5% (119) were male. The mean age was 33.78 ±11.51 years. MS was classified as mild to moderate in 3.5% of the patients, severe in 54.3%, and very severe in 42.2%. In 98.8% of the patients, the etiology of MS was rheumatic. LA thrombus was observed in 25% (64) of the patients and LA smoke was observed in 12.1% (31). Among other findings, mitral regurgitation (MR) was observed in 17.2% of the patients, aortic regurgitation (AR) in 5.1%, aortic stenosis (AS) in 4.7%, and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in 48.8%. Five (2%) patients had atrial septal defect (ASD), 17.3% had left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, 15.2% had right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, and vegetation was seen in 11.8% of the patients. Patients with LA thrombus were found to be associated with the following conditions on a higher scale compared to those without: decreased ejection fraction (EF) (52 ±8.5% vs. 54.94 ±6.6%; p: 0.011); RV dysfunction (39.1% vs. 7.3%; p: Conclusion: LA thrombus on TTE was detected in a significant number (25%) of patients with MS. It was also found to be strongly associated with the severity of the disease, reduced EF, RV dysfunction, and the presence of associated value pathologies.


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