Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences; Medicine; Cardiology; Radiology


Research at the Aga Khan University for several years has been directed to find a reliable, low-cost, portable, non-invasive method for identification of coronary artery disease, its location and extent. A new method has been devised to measure the magnitude and direction of cardiac electrical vectors in three perpendicular planes during physical exercise to identify reduction in myocardial excitability as the electrophysiological marker of hypoxia. This report shows that changes in electrical forces due to exercise-induced regional hypoxia serve as indicators of reversible myocardial ischaemia. Changes in the magnitude and direction of vectors at stages of the Bruce protocol were measured in healthy volunteers, and patients undergoing the same exercise protocol for distribution of a radioactive tracer injected intravenously at peak exercise and after recovery (myocardial perfusion scan). Alterations in the magnitude and direction of resultant vectors during exercise were scored to enable analysis. Analysis identified slow progression of myocardial depolarisation as the electrophysiological marker of regional hypoxia relative to physical work. Compared with myocardial perfusion scan the sensitivity and specificity of electrical vectors for identification of ischaemia were 88% and 71%, respectively. Accuracy of ischaemia shown by electrical vectors is being assessed in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Scientific Reports

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.