Document Type



Community Health Sciences; Cardiology; Department of Medicine


We aimed to evaluate the association of albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and changes in these parameters with left ventricular mass index (LVMI) at 7 years in adults with hypertension from communities in Pakistan. A nested cohort of 539 hypertensives aged 40 years and older from a community-living population in Karachi, Pakistan, followed up for 7 years in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation trial. Urine spot albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and serum creatinine-based eGFR were assessed at baseline and 7 years, and echocardiography at 7 years. Mean age of participants was 50.9 ± 9.1 (standard deviation) years; 63% were female. Mean eGFR was 91.0 ± 15.9 (standard deviation) mL/min/1.73 m2 and median (interquartile range) UACR 6.2 (3.9, 11.3) mg/g. In multivariate analysis, although baseline eGFR was marginally associated with LVMI, a strong association was found between higher LVMI with greater rate of decline in eGFR (β = -1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [-1.94, -0.17]). Higher baseline UACR was significantly associated with higher follow-up LVMI (β = 2.26; 95% CI: [0.87, 3.65]), as was rate of UACR increase of ≥1.07 mg/g/y versus of <0.14 mg/g/y. (β = 4.19; 95% CI: [0.75, 7.63]). Associations with developing left ventricular hypertrophy were found for reduced baseline eGFR, higher baseline UACR, and greater rate of UACR increase, but not for rate of eGFR decline. Comparable results were observed for the outcomes of posterior wall thickness and septal wall thickness. Higher baseline albuminuria, lower baseline eGFR, and their longitudinal worsening were significantly associated with higher LVMI or the development of left ventricular hypertrophy among individuals with hypertension in Pakistan.


Author copy


Journal of the American Society of Hypertension