Cardiac autonomic plexus neuromodulation for decompensated heart failure: An updated review on the positive inotropic technique based on the DRI2P2S classification

Document Type



Medical College Pakistan


Current pharmacological regimen is unable to improve adverse outcomes such as mortality post hospitalization for Acutely Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) patients. Ongoing research is directed towards managing ADHF patients with Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (CANS) excitatory interventions having long-term prognosis benefits. Recently, a novel treatment coined as Cardiac Pulmonary Nerve Stimulation (CPNS) has reproducibly shown increased inotropy with no change in heart rate. However, there are some potential limitations associated with the neurostimulation of the parasympathetic component of the CANS plexus. The INOVATE-HF trial involved the vagus nerve only. The early termination of the INOVATE-HF trial gave valuable insights into the cardio-protective effect of simultaneously stimulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the CANS plexus done in CPNS. It is essential to individualize the treatment protocol keeping in mind patient selection. Ongoing trials assessing the efficacy and safety of the CPNS technique in ADHF patients shall set the tone for such innovative techniques in times to come.


Pagination are not provided by the author/publisher.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Current problems in cardiology