COVID-19 and HIV: Clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients in the United States

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Medical College Pakistan


The concurrence of HIV and COVID-19 yields unique challenges and considerations for healthcare providers, patients living with HIV, and healthcare systems at-large. Persons living with HIV may face a higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and experiencing worse clinical outcomes compared to those without. Notably, COVID-19 may have a disproportionate impact on historically disadvantaged populations, including African Americans and those stratified in a lower socio-economic status. Using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we compared patients with a diagnosis of both HIV and COVID-19 and those who exclusively had a diagnosis of COVID-19. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were intubation rate and vasopressor use; acute MI, acute kidney injury (AKI); AKI requiring hemodialysis (HD); venous thromboembolism (VTE); septic shock and cardiac arrest; length of stay; financial burden on healthcare; and resource utilization. A total of 1,572,815 patients were included in this study; a COVID-19-positive sample that did not have HIV (n = 1,564,875, 99.4%) and another sample with HIV and COVID-19 (n = 7940, 0.56%). Patients with COVID-19 and HIV did not have a significant difference in mortality compared to COVID-19 alone (10.2% vs. 11.3%, respectively, p = 0.35); however, that patient cohort did have a significantly higher rate of AKI (33.6% vs. 28.6%, aOR: 1.26 [95% CI 1.13-1.41], p < 0.001). Given the complex interplay between HIV and COVID-19, more prospective studies investigating the factors such as the contribution of viral burden, CD4 cell count, and the details of patients' anti-retroviral therapeutic regimens should be pursued.


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