Effect of a community based social marketing strategy on the uptake of clean delivery kits in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan

Document Type



Medical College Pakistan; Community Health Sciences; Paediatrics and Child Health


Background: Pakistan has one of the highest neonatal and maternal mortality rates in the world. Use of clean delivery kits (CDK) at time of delivery improves maternal and newborn outcome. We test effectiveness of a social marketing strategy to increase uptake of CDKs in a low socioeconomic peri-urban community in Pakistan.
Methods: This was a sequential mixed method study. The quantitative component consisted of two arms. In the prospective intervention arm trained community health workers (CHWs) visited pregnant women twice to prepare them for birth and encourage use of CDKs. Availability of these kits was ensured at accessible stores in these communities. The retrospective control arm consisted of women delivering in same area during the past 3 months identified from pregnancy register. Information was collected on sociodemographic, pregnancy characteristics and use of CDKs at time of delivery in both arms. We compared proportion of women using CDKs during home deliveries in the intervention and control arm. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with use of CDKs in intervention arm. We carried out separate focused group discussions (FGDs) with women who used CDKs, with women who did not use CDKs and birth attendants.
Results: Total of 568 pregnant women were enrolled in prospective intervention arm and 603 in retrospective control arm. The proportion of women using CDKs during home deliveries in retrospective control arm was 9.4% compared to 23.8% in prospective control arm (p = < 0.001). In final multivariable model, increasing age of pregnant woman and husband having some education was positively associated with CDK use (aOR 1.1;95% CI 1.1-1.2 and aOR 2.2;95% CI 1.3-3.6 respectively). During FGDs, many women were of the thought that kits should be free or included in the amount charged by birth attendants. Assembly of components of kit into one package was appreciated by birth attendants.
Conclusion: Social marketing strategy targeting pregnant women and their family members resulted in an increase in the uptake of CDKs in our study. Birth attendants were generally satisfied with the assembly of the kit. Many women cited unawareness and cost to be a major impediment in use of CDKs.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.