Psychological distress, anxiety, family violence, suicidality, and wellbeing in Pakistan during the COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study
Medical College Pakistan
Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to draw the attention toward the implications of COVID-19 and the related restrictions imposed worldwide especially in Pakistan. The primary objective was to highlight the levels of psychological distress, anxiety, family violence, suicidality, and well-being due to COVID-19 and the secondary objective was to associate it to social demographic factors.
Materials and methods: It is designed as a cross-sectional study by employing an online questionnaire in the English language and obtaining responses using a snowball sampling technique. We used three validated measures including Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) index and World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5).
Results: A sample of 420 participants was recruited from across Pakistan, with most participants were females (79%), students (89.8%) and belonging to Punjab (54%). Nearly one-fourth of the participants (23.8%) scored above the minimum value set for moderate or high psychological distress (K10 > 12). There was a higher prevalence of distress among females and resident of province Punjab. The majority of individuals reported that they were living with their family (94.5%) and more than half (52.6%) were neutral regarding their satisfaction with their living conditions. 40.5% believed that the lockdown has had a negative impact on their mental health. 31.4% have reported that they themselves have experienced abuse from a family member. 48.6% scored high on the GAD-7 scale and low wellbeing score was found among 80.2%. Students were found to be more vulnerable to mental illness and anxiety.
Conclusion: With the lockdown restrictions, psychosocial distress has become prevalent in Pakistan.
Frontiers in psychology
Jatoi, H. N.,
Abbasi, M. S.,
Asghar, M. S.,
Siddiqui, S. A.,
Khattak, A. K.,
Alam, M. T.
(2022). Psychological distress, anxiety, family violence, suicidality, and wellbeing in Pakistan during the COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study. Frontiers in psychology.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_mc/270