Document Type



Cardiothoracic Surgery


Objective: To compare pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative parameters in Down syndrome (DS) and non-DS patients with atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) and inlet ventricular septal defects (VSD) in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study at Aga Khan University, Pakistan. All complete atrioventricular septal defect (CAVSD), partial atrioventricular septal defect (PAVSD), and VSD with inlet extension surgical cases from January 2007 to January 2019 were included. Patients with congenital heart diseases other than those listed above were excluded.
Results: In 61 cases, 18 had DS. Median age, mean body surface area (BSA), and height were lower in DS patients compared to non-DS patients: 7.0 vs 23.0 months, 0.311 vs 0.487 m2, and 63 vs 82 cm, respectively. Bypass duration, aortic cross clamp time, post-operative ventilator hours, dose of inotropes, CICU stay, and total hospital stay were all significantly higher in the DS group. The odds ratio (955% CI) for mortality in DS babies was 6.2 (1.4, 27.1), p=0.015, after adjusting for age, weight, and height. The overall morbidity was comparable between the two groups, demonstrating no significant difference after adjusting for confounders.
Conclusion: DS babies with AVSD and inlet VSD are at a greater risk of mortality compared to non-DS babies, particularly those with CAVSD. Furthermore, DS babies undergo surgery at a younger age and require more aggressive post-operative therapy and monitoring due to the development of complications.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.