Document Type



Family Medicine


Objective: To determine the frequency and distribution of various risk factors and behaviours for coronary artery disease (CAD) among ambulatory Pakistanis.
Methods: It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital, a teaching hospital in Karachi. All the subjects were adults (18-60 years) presenting at the general checkup clinic with no history or evidence of CAD by convenient sampling method. Demographic variables included risk factors and behaviors including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history of heart disease, obesity, smoking and sedentary lifestyle.
Results: Among 370 ambulatory Pakistanis, the proportions of major risk factors for CAD were: sedentary life style 72%, family history 42%, dyslipidemia 31%, obesity 24%, hypertension 19% and diabetes mellitus 15%. Diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia were poorly controlled in the study population. Proportions of the three major risk factors (smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia) occurring singly, doubly and all three together in the study population were found to be 39%, 11% and 1%, respectively. Data were also analyzed for risk factors by comparing those with and without family history of CAD to eliminate any bias. The results were not statistically significant except for the sedentary life style (P=0.016).
Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of CAD risk factors in this study population. Modifiable risk factors like diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol need better control. Preventive screening programs and healthy lifestyle behaviours need to be emphasized upon in the community.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.