Pakistan's Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system & out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA): A narrative review of an EMS system of a low middle income country in context of OHCA

Document Type

Review Article


Emergency Medicine


Pakistan's Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are a critical component of its healthcare system, providing pre-hospital emergency care across a nation with over 220 million people. This article explores the evolutionary journey of Pakistan's EMS, highlighting both the challenges it faces and the strides it has made, with a specific emphasis on patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). To extract relevant information, we searched MEDLINE & Embase data bases using MeSH terms "Emergency Medical Services" OR "EMS" AND "Out-of-Hospital-Cardiac-Arrest" OR "OHCA" AND "Pakistan". In addition, we also retrieved information from the EMS leadership in Pakistan through e-mails. We delve into the significance of key performance indicators for OHCA, advocate for the establishment of OHCA registries to improve patient outcomes, address regional disparities in pre-hospital care, and acknowledge the gradual progress of the EMS system.


Issue and pagination are not provided by the author/publisher.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Resuscitation Plus