Document Type



Emergency Medicine



The aim of study was to assess differences in reporting of violence and deliberate self harm (DSH) related injuries to police and emergency department (ED) in an urban town of Pakistan.

Methods/Principal Findings:

Study setting was Rawalpindi city of 1.6 million inhabitants. Incidences of violence and DSH related injuries and deaths were estimated from record linkage of police and ED data. These were then compared to reported figures in both datasets. All persons reporting violence and DSH related injury to the police station, the public hospital's ED, or both in Rawalpindi city from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008 were included. In Rawalpindi city, 1 016 intentional injury victims reported to police whereas 3 012 reported to ED. Comparing violence related fatality estimates (N = 56, 95% CI: 46–64), police reported 75.0% and ED reported 42.8% of them. Comparing violence related injury estimates (N = 7 990, 95% CI: 7 322–8 565), police reported 12.1% and ED reported 33.2% of them. Comparing DSH related fatality estimates (N = 17, 95% CI: 4–30), police reported 17.7% and ED reported 47.1% of them. Comparing DSH related injury estimates (N = 809, 95% CI: 101–1 516), police reported 0.5% and ED reported 39.9% of them.


In Rawalpindi city, police records were more likely to be complete for violence related deaths as compared to injuries due to same mechanism. As compared to ED, police reported DSH related injuries and deaths far less than those due to other types of violence.


PLoS One

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.