Average out-of-pocket healthcare and work-loss costs of traffic injuries in Karachi, Pakistan

Document Type



Emergency Medicine; Neurosurgery


The objective of this study was to assess the average out-of-pocket healthcare and work-loss costs of road traffic injuries (RTI) in Karachi. In this cross-sectional study, RTI Patients presenting to the five trauma centres in Karachi were contacted using stratified sampling to report their inPatient and outPatient expenses, the time spent in hospital and their average monthly income. These costs were compared among different categories of Patient-related variables using analysis of variance test. Out of 341 RTI victims, two wheelers accounted for the majority of injuries (77.2%, N=256) followed by pedestrians (14.2%, N=48). Almost half of the sample Patients were breadwinners (N=135, 45.2%), with 87.4% (N=118) earning less than US$ 248. Average out-of-pocket healthcare costs were US$ 271 (SD=440.9), which were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.026) for pedestrians (US$ 442), moderate (US$ 341.7) or severe (US$ 553.8) injury, and treatment in private hospitals (US$ 451.7). Similarly, average work loss was US$ 67.1 (SD=132.1), which were significantly higher (P=0.001) for breadwinners (US$ 99.1), moderate (US$ 130.0) or severe (US$ 157.1) injury, and treatment in private hospitals (US$ 150.0). Study results clearly showed the need to advocate RTI prevention measures in Pakistan as any such event could lead to a difficult economic situation for those involved and their family.


International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion