Experiences of undergraduate medical, nursing students and faculty regarding flipped classroom: A mixed method study at private medical university in Pakistan

Document Type



Medical College Pakistan; Biological and Biomedical Sciences; Educational Development; Medicine; Surgery; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


The 'flipped classroom (FCR)' is a teaching pedagogy where students are actively involved in the learning process. It reduces passivity, enables students to become active learners through reasoning and concept application and facilitates student interaction with their peers and instructors. This instructional approach enhances retention and decreases distraction by engaging students.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to train the faculty of the medical college and school of nursing in developing FCRs as an innovative teaching and learning strategy, to facilitate them in conducting flipped sessions for their students and to explore the experiences of medical, nursing students along with faculty members regarding the FCR they had attended and conducted.
Setting: Private medical college.
Participants: A total of 442 students from medical college and school of nursing and midwifery participated in the evaluation survey with a female to male ratio of 339:103. Students who attended the flipped class sessions were included in the study sample. Students who did not complete the forms were excluded from the study. Nine faculty members who attended the workshop, agreed to facilitate the FCR session were invited to participate in the focus group discussion.
Results: Both medical and nursing students found FCR format stimulating. A significantly higher proportion of medical students (73%) found the FCR more engaging and interesting than a traditional lecture as compared with nursing students (59%) (p=0.009). Similarly, 73% of medical students believed the learning objectives of both the non-face-to-face and face-to-face sessions were shared with them as compared with the 62% of nursing students who believed the same (p=0.002). A significantly higher proportion of medical (76%) versus nursing (61%) students found the FCR format more useful for application of their theoretical knowledge into clinical practice (p=0.030).
Conclusion: Students found the FCR more engaging and interesting in terms of applying theoretical knowledge into practice. Similarly, faculty found this strategy as effective but challenging in terms of involving and engaging students in the learning process. It is recommended to conduct more FCR sessions for an interactive and student-centred learning, but proper planning of the session and using variety of technological tools to engage learners is a key to success.


Pagination are not provided by the author/publisher.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMJ Open