Prevalence and associated risk factors of sleep-disordered breathing symptoms in young and middle-aged Pakistani employed adults

Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported sleep-disordered breathing (SDB symptoms and its associated risk factors in Pakistani employed adults. Method: Full-time employees (n = 3470) of a medical university were evaluated. Self-administered questionnaire elicited information about demographic data, symptoms of SDB, smoking and alcohol use, presence of nasal congestion, family history of snoring, and included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Prevalence of self-reported snoring and of combined SDB symptoms (snoring plus at least one other SDB symptom) was evaluated. Regression analyses were used to assess risk factors associated with self-reported snoring and combined SDB symptoms. Results: Among the 2,497 (72%) responders, prevalence of self-reported snoring was 32%, and combined SDB symptoms 25%. A higher prevalence of snoring and combined SDB symptoms in male gender diminished with age. In univariate analysis, the odds of snoring was higher with age a parts per thousand yen35 yrs (odds ratio (OR) 2.6, confidence interval (CI) 2.2-3.2), body mass index a parts per thousand yen23 (OR 2.6, CI 2.2-3.1), and collar size above 40 cm (OR 2.7, CI 2.3-3.3). Self-reported nasal blockage (OR 1.9, CI 1.6-2.2) and family history of snoring (OR 2.9, 2.5-3.5) were other risk factors. In logistic regression analysis, significant risk factors for SDB symptoms were age, body mass index, collar size, nasal blockage, and family history of snoring. Male gender, smoking and alcohol were not significant risk factors for SDB symptoms. Conclusion: The prevalence of SDB symptoms in Pakistani employed adults was comparable to Western populations. However, male gender and smoking were not significant risk factors for SDB symptoms.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Sleep and Breathing