Document Type



Community Health Sciences; Cardiology; Nephrology; Paediatrics and Child Health


Introduction: The creatinine-based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equation was calibrated for the general Pakistan population (eGFRcr-PK) to eliminate bias and improve accuracy. Cystatin C-based CKD-EPI equations (eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys) have not been assessed in this population, and non-GFR determinants of cystatin C are unknown.
Methods: We assessed eGFRcys, eGFRcr-cys, and non-GFR determinants of cystatin C in a cross-sectional study of 557 participants (≥40 years of age) from Pakistan. We compared bias (median difference in measured GFR [mGFR] and eGFR), precision (interquartile range [IQR] of differences), accuracy (percentage of eGFR within 30% of mGFR), root mean square error (RMSE), and classification of mGFR /min/1.73 m2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] and net reclassification index [NRI]) among eGFR equations.
Results: We found that eGFRcys underestimated mGFR (bias, 12.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 [95% confidence interval {CI} 10.7-15.2]). eGFRcr-cys did not improve performance over eGFRcr-PK in precision (P = 0.52), accuracy (P = 0.58), or RMSE (P = 0.49). Results were consistent among subgroups by age, sex, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and eGFR. NRI was 7.31% (95% CI 1.52%-13.1%; P < 0.001) for eGFRcr-cys versus eGFRcr-PK, but AUC was not improved (0.92 [95% CI 0.87-0.96] vs. 0.90 [95% CI 0.86-0.95]; P = 0.056). Non-GFR determinants of higher cystatin C included male sex, smoking, higher BMI and total body fat, and lower lean body mass.
Conclusion: eGFRcys underestimated mGFR in South Asians and eGFRcr-cys did not offer substantial advantage compared with eGFRcr-PK. Future studies are warranted to better understand the large bias in eGFRcys and non-GFR determinants of cystatin C in South Asians.


Kidney International Reports