Document Type



Community Health Sciences


The introduction of digital CXR with automated computer-aided interpretation, has given impetus to the role of CXR in TB screening, particularly in low resource, high-burden settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CAD4TB as a screening tool, implemented in the private sector in Karachi, Pakistan. This study analyzed retrospective data from CAD4TB and Xpert MTB/RIF testing carried out at two private TB treatment and diagnostic centers in Karachi. Sensitivity, specificity, potential Xperts saved, were computed and the receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed for four different models of CAD4TB. A total of 6,845 individuals with presumptive TB were enrolled in the study, 15.2% of which had MTB + ve result on Xpert. A high sensitivity (range 65.8-97.3%) and NPV (range 93.1-98.4%) were recorded for CAD4TB. The Area under the ROC curve (AUC) for CAD4TB was 0.79. CAD4TB with patient demographics (age and gender) gave an AUC of 0.83. CAD4TB offered high diagnostic accuracy. In low resource settings, CAD4TB, as a triage tool could minimize use of Xpert. Using CAD4TB in combination with age and gender data enhanced the performance of the software. Variations in demographic information generate different individual risk probabilities for the same CAD4TB scores.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Scientific Reports

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.