Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Background: Sino-implant (II) is a two-rod subcutaneous contraceptive implant used up to 4 years, containing 150 mg of levonorgestrel. We conducted two observational studies of Sino-implant (II) to evaluate its performance in routine service delivery settings.
Methods: We enrolled 1326 women age 18-44 who had Sino-implant (II) inserted at clinics in Pakistan and Kenya. Women were followed-up using either an active or passive follow-up scheme in each study. Study outcomes were: one-year cumulative pregnancy and discontinuation rates; rates of insertion and removal complications; adverse event and side effect rates; reasons for discontinuation; and implant acceptability and satisfaction with clinic services.
Results: A total of 754 women returned for at least one follow-up visit. The overall Pearl pregnancy rate was 0.4 per 100 woman-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 0.9] resulting from 1 confirmed post-insertion pregnancy in Kenya and 4 in Pakistan. Country-specific Pearl rates were 0.2 (95% CI 0.0, 0.9) in Kenya and 0.6 (95% CI 0.2, 1.6) in Pakistan. The total cumulative 12-month probability of removal was 7.6% (95% CI 6.1, 9.1), with country-specific removal probabilities of 3.7% in Kenya (95% CI 2.1, 5.3) and 10.8% in Pakistan (95% CI 8.5, 13.2). Four serious adverse events occurred in Kenya and none occurred in Pakistan; one SAE (an ectopic pregnancy) was possibly related to Sino-implant (II). Most women in both countries said they would recommend the implant to others.
Conclusion: The results from these studies reveal high effectiveness and favorable safety and acceptability during the first year of use of Sino-implant.
Implication: The favorable Sino-implant (II) findings from Kenya and Pakistan provide further evidence from disparate regions that Sino-implant (II) is safe, effective and acceptable during routine service delivery.

Publication (Name of Journal)


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.