Document Type



Community Health Sciences


The World Health Report 2010 encourages countries to reduce wastage and increase efficiency to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This research examines the efficiency of divisions (sub-provincial geographic units) in Pakistan in moving towards UHC using Data Envelop Analysis. We have used data from the Pakistan National Accounts 2011-12 and the Pakistan Social Living and Measurement Survey 2012-13 to measure per capita pooled public health spending in the divisions as inputs, and a set of UHC indicators (health service coverage and financial protection) as outputs. Sensitivity analysis for factors outside the health sector influencing health outcomes was conducted to refine the main model specification. Spider radar graphs were generated to illustrate differences between divisions with similar public spending but different performances for UHC. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to explore the strength and direction of the associations between proxy health systems organization variables and efficiency scores.The results showed a large variation in performance of divisions for selected UHC outputs. The results of the sensitivity analysis were also similar. Overall, divisions in Sindh province were better performing and divisions in Balochistan province were the least performing. Access to health care, the responsiveness of health systems, and patients' satisfaction were found to be correlated with efficiency scores.This research suggests that progress towards UHC is possible even at relatively low levels of public spending. Given the devolution of health system responsibilities to the provinces, this analysis will be a timely reference for provinces to gauge the performance of their divisions and plan the ongoing reforms to achieve UHC.


Health Systems and Reform

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.