Document Type



Community Health Sciences


OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk factors for depression among married women belonging to low and high socioeconomic status in Karachi.METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional. The data was collected from 128 adult married women during July to September 2005. The women were selected from different socioeconomic classes from five hospitals/institutes in Karachi. The Centre for Epidemiology Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale was used to screen the subjects for depression and a structured questionnaire was used to identify the factors for depression.RESULT: According to the CES-D scale, 65% of the study population was found to be depressed. Among the women from high socioeconomic status, social conditions were identified as a significant factor for causing depression, whereas social relations, specifically relationship problems with husband, were the major factor for depression among women belonging to the low socioeconomic status.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression among married women living in Karachi is high. However, underlying factors for causing depression vary among women belonging to low and high socioeconomic status.


Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association