Prevalence and correlates of smoking on the roof of the world

Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Objective: To determine the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adults in high mountain rural areas of northern Pakistan.Design: Cross sectional survey.PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 4203 adults (aged 18 years and over) were selected by stratified random sampling from 16 villages.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self reported smoking prevalence; age of smoking initiation; daily cigarette consumption and association between current smoking and sociodemographic variables, use of snuff, wine, body mass index, blood pressure, family history of stroke, and hypertension.Results: 614/1406 men (43.7%) and 154/2797 (5.5%) women reported smoking cigarettes. The age standardised prevalence of smoking was 40.5% for men and 6.3% for women. Men were more likely (odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.75 to 8.79) to be smokers. Smokers were more likely to use snuff (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.73), drink wine (OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.81 to 4.29), and were more likely to work as farmers (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.29) or shopkeepers (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.14). Individuals with college level education and with desirable body mass index were less likely to smoke (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.87; OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.96).CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem in this high mountain community of Pakistan, particularly among the male population, the majority of whom begin to smoke quite early in life. A comprehensive tobacco control effort incorporated into the existing community based health infrastructure is needed.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Tobacco Control