Predictors of in-hospital mortality for intracerebral hemorrhage: a hospital-based study in Pakistani adults

Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Introduction: Intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) comprise 5% to 30% of all strokes with a case fatality rate of 30% to 50%. With an increasing elderly population, nontraumatic ICH is likely to present as a recurring medical emergency in Pakistan. There is scarce documentation in Pakistan regarding the predictors for mortality in patients with ICH that can guide physicians in their management. We conducted a hospital-based study to determine the predictors of in-hospital mortality from ICH in patients admitted to a tertiary care facility.MATERIALS AND Methods: We reviewed case records of patients above 17 years admitted to The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1995 and December 1997, with the primary diagnosis of ICH confirmed on computed tomography scanning. Clinical and risk factors were also evaluated.Results: The data of 221 patients was analyzed. Seventy-one (32%) patients died during hospital stay, half of whom died during the first 2 days of hospitalization. Patients who died during hospital stay were more likely on admission to have intraventricular extension of the primary hemorrhage (odds ratio = 10.6, P < .01), a Glasgow Coma Score less than 12 on admission (odds ratio = 4.8, P < .01), and a systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 180 mm Hg (odds ratio = 2.7, P = .03).CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that Glasgow Coma Score and intraventricular extension are predictors of acute mortality, consistent with published results. Elevated systolic blood pressure at admission, also found to be a predictor of acute mortality from ICH, may be explained alternatively by internal and external stroke-induced stress factors. The actual mechanisms for high admission systolic blood pressure remain unclear.


Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases