Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Background: Community-based information on obstetric and gynecological morbidity in developing countries is meager and nearly non-existent in Pakistan.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of specific gynecological morbidities and investigate the predictors of pelvic inflammatory disease.Methods: Users [404] and non-users [313] of modern contraceptives were identified from eight squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan and detailed information on basic demographics, contraceptive use, female mobility, decision-making and gynecological morbidities were elicited.Results: The perceived prevalence of menstrual disorders were 45.3%, uterine prolapse 19.1%, pelvic inflammatory disease 12.8% and urinary tract infection 5.4%. The magnitude of gynecological morbidity was high with about 55% of women reporting at least one gynecological morbidity though fewer [20%] reported at least two gynecological morbidities. Significant predictors of pelvic inflammatory disease were intrauterine contraceptive device users (OR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.6), age < or = 20 years (OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.8) and urban life style (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-4.6).CONCLUSION: There is an immense burden of reproductive ill-health and a significant association between ever users of intrauterine contraceptive device and pelvic inflammatory disease. We therefore suggest improvement in the quality of reproductive health services generally, but specifically for family planning services.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association