Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Objective: To investigate the role of dietary intake in the development of premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a hospital-based Pakistani population in Karachi.
Methods: In a case control study, 203 consecutive patients (146 males and 57 females) with their first AMI and age below 45 years were enrolled with informed consent. Similarly, 205 gender and age matched (within 3 years) healthy adults were also included as controls. Dietary intake of both cases and controls was assessed by using a simple 14-item food frequency questionnaire. Using factor analysis, 3 major dietary patterns- prudent dietary pattern, combination dietary pattern and western dietary pattern were identified. Fasting plasma/serum of both cases and controls were analyzed for homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, blood Pb, ferritin, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. ANOVA and conditional logistic regression were used to predict the association of dietary patterns with AMI.
Results: Consumption of prudent diet, characterized by high consumption of legumes, vegetables, wheat, chicken and fruits, is protective against the risk of premature AMI. Moderate to high consumption of combination diet, characterized by high intake of eggs, fish, fruits, juices and coffee was associated with decreased risk of AMI. No association was observed between western diet, characterized by high intake of meat, fish and tea with milk and risk of AMI.
Conclusions: Consumption of a prudent dietary pattern and a combination dietary pattern is protective against the risk of AMI in a Pakistani population.


Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.