Factors associated with heroin addiction among male adults in Lahore, Pakistan

Document Type



Community Health Sciences


The objective of this matched case control study was to evaluate the factors associated with heroin addiction among male heroin addicts of age 15 to 35 years in Lahore. A total of 233 heroin addicts, matched on neighborhood controls, were enrolled at a case control ratio of 1:2. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was carried out to study the independent relationship of hypothesized factors with heroin addiction. The factors associated with heroin addiction were parental disharmony (i.e. occasional fights versus no fights: adjusted matched odds ratio (adj. mOR) = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.4-7.8; frequent fights versus no fights: adj. mOR = 6.0, 95% CI: 2.8-16.6), drug using peers (adj. mOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 2.6-12.1), alcohol use (adj. mOR = 4.2, 95% CI, 2.3-7.6). use of over the counter available drugs (adj. mOR = 4.1, 95% CI, 1.8-10.6), father's absence (adj. mOR = 2.9, 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), non-formal schooling of the mother (adj. mOR = 2.8, 95% CI, 1.7-4.7), non-formal schooling of the respondent (adj. mOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.5-3.8), and the presence of a drug user among similar age group family members (adj. mOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.3-4.8). It is recommended that public health strategies be formulated based on various facets of the problem revealed by this and previous research to prevent illicit drug use.


Journal of Psychoactive Drugs