Document Type



Community Health Sciences


The Maternal and Infant Mortality Survey (MIMS) was conducted in eight squatter settlements of Karachi. The female mortality rate was 151.0 per 100,000 women aged 10-49 years and the maternal mortality ratio was 281 per 100,000 livebirths. The leading causes of deaths among women were complications of pregnancy (28.1%), infectious diseases (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (20.7%), neoplasia (10.7%) and trauma (10.7%). Hemorrhage (47.1% of all maternal deaths), tuberculosis (40.0% of all infectious disease deaths), oropharyngeal cancer (23.1% of all neoplastic deaths), and burns (61.5% of all trauma deaths) were among the major causes identified. Maternal deaths were associated with young age and nulliparity (p-value < 0.01), and a higher proportion occurred in the hospital or on the way to the hospital as compared to non-maternal deaths.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association