Rate and Risk Factors of Stillbirth in Pakistan: A Systematic Review

Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Background: Stillbirths signify an overwhelming and adverse outcome of pregnancy. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of stillbirth. Poor quality of health care system is an important risk factor for stillbirth in Pakistan. This
review was conducted to determine the overall burden and risk factors of stillbirth in our population for policy makers to prioritize prevention of stillbirth.
Methods: We searched Medline PubMed, Google web and Google Scholar and PakMediNet. We used a combination of keywords, “stillbirth”, “prevalence”, “risk factors”, “predictors”, “determinants” and “perinatal mortality” that appeared in abstracts or titles. All studies conducted in Pakistan reported the rate of stillbirth and risk factors of stillbirth from 2000 to 2016 were included in this review. The data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010.
Results: We find eleven studies related to the rate and risk factors of stillbirth in Pakistan. Of eleven studies, nine studies were conducted in a hospital setting and two in a community setting. In this review, we found the average rate of stillbirth was estimated to be 52.5/1000 births (95% Confidence interval 50.5 – 54.5) ranging from 17.7 to 99/1000 births. Antepartum hemorrhage was the most common risk factor followed by a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, primi/multiparity, preterm labor and mismanaged labor.
Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high burden of stillbirth in Pakistan. We are hoping that as the Sustainable Development Goal begins may get the attention of policy makers for prevention of stillbirths.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pediatrics and Child Nutrition