Document Type



Community Health Sciences; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; Surgery


Objective:To determine the association between environmental tobacco smoke and dental caries.
Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and urban areas of Karachi, from February to August 2014, and comprised children aged 5-14 years. A pre-coded questionnaire for environmental tobacco smoke and food frequency questionnaire for dietary habits were used. Dental examination of children was done to detect caries. Cox-proportional hazard algorithm was used to measure the association of environmental tobacco smoke with dental caries at multivariable level. STATA version 12.0 was used for statistical analysis.
Result:Of the 500 children, 250(50%) each were from peri-urban and urban localities. The prevalence of dental caries was 336(67.2%).Family members of 154(30.8%) participants reported smoking. After adjusting for junk food intake, in-between meals, age, plaque index, dental visits and socio-economic status, the association between environmental tobacco smoke and dental caries remained statistically significant (p30 minutes of environmental tobacco smoke exposure, respectively.
Conclusions:Environmental tobacco smoke was found to be associated with dental caries.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.