Coverage and predictors of routine immunization among 12-23 months old children in disaster affected communities in Pakistan.

Document Type



Community Health Sciences



We aimed this study to determine the relationship of various factors related to poor immunization in children in an earthquake affected community.


We conducted this cross-sectional study during 2007-2008 in Muzaffarabad district of Pakistani side of Kashmir. We selected 43 villages as clusters and in the second, 860 children between 12 and 24 months were selected from households through systematic sampling. Mothers of the eligible children were interviewed with a questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was run to measure the association of various factors with appropriate immunization status of the children.


We found that 74% of children had completed their required doses of routine immunization. There were greater odds of a child being unvaccinated if the family lived at a distance that was to be covered in more than 10 min by any transport (odds ratio [OR]: 1.12, confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.17), mother of the child was not educated (OR:2.4, 1.3-4.4), child belonged to a low socioeconomic status (OR:3.5, CI: 2.1-6.3), family had any challenge or situation that where they could not take the child to a health facility for vaccination (OR: 2.3, CI: 1.4-3.7) and for a female child that belonged to minority ethnic group (OR: 1.7, CI: 1.0-2.5).


Improvement in access of communities, especially of minority and poor in disaster-stricken, to immunization services and female education and awareness about the need for immunization in children could play a role in improving immunization coverage in such settings.


International Journal of Health Sciences

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.