Novel putative biomarkers for infective endocarditis by serum proteomic analysis: A comprehensive review of literature


Afreen Begum

Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Infective endocarditis (IE) is a challenging condition with high mortality. Prompt detection of IE has become essential for early and immediate management. The authors aimed to comprehensively review the existing literature on novel putative biomarkers for IE through serum proteomic analysis. The literature reveals high levels of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in IE with staphylococcal etiology, valvular lesions, and when combined with cardiac troponin I (cTnI), had a more significant value for risk stratification. A higher pro-ADM level, copeptin, NT-proBNP, and the monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) all impacted mortality during the hospital stay. The biomarker matrix metalloproteinase-9 was utilized to predict new-onset embolic events in patients, thus serving as a predictive marker. Procalcitonin was an important diagnostic marker in IE complicated with severe infection. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interferon-γ, cTnI, and NT-proBNP were also discovered to be useful as prognostic indicators. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are possible using antiphospholipid antibodies as a diagnostic test for definite IE. It is also concluded that antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody positive individuals with IE had a lengthier hospital stay. These noninvasive biomarkers can identify patients at risk and provide appropriate and early clinical management. NT-proBNP, Cystatin C, troponins, IL-6, IL-8, S100A11, and AQP9 are examples of possible markers that appear promising for further research. In conclusion, large-scale validation studies should study these biomarkers further to establish their use in clinical settings.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Annals of Medicine & Surgery