The role of self-efficacy and risk perception in willingness to respond to weather disasters among emergency medicine healthcare workers in Pakistan

Document Type



Community Health Sciences; Emergency Medicine


Objective: Optimizing healthcare workers' (HCWs) willingness to respond (WTR) is critical in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) for proper health system functioning during extreme weather events. Pakistan frequently experiences weather-related disasters, but limited evidence is available to examine HCW willingness. Our study examined the association between WTR and behavioral factors among emergency department HCWs.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2022 among HCWs from two hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. A survey tool was informed by Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between WTR and attitudes/beliefs as well as EPPM profiles.
Results: 29% of HCWs indicated low WTR. HCWs using public transportation had higher WTR. Perceived knowledge and skills, self-efficacy, and perceived impact of one's response showed positive associations with WTR if required. Perception that one's colleagues' would report to work positively predicted WTR if asked. Consistent with the EPPM, HCWs with high efficacy and perceived threat were willing to respond to weather disasters.
Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need of strengthening WTR by promoting self-efficacy, and enhancing accurate risk perception as a response motivator, among emergency department HCWs in Pakistan.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness