Community centred co-design methodology for designing and implementing socio-behavioural interventions to counter COVID-19 related misinformation among marginalized population living in the squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: A methodology paper

Document Type



Community Health Sciences; Paediatrics and Child Health


Background: Misinformation regarding COVID-19 pandemic and vaccination is damaging COVID-19 vaccine trust and acceptance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC). Identification of misinformation and designing locally acceptable solutions are needed to improve COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. This study aimed to utilize community-led co-design methodology to evaluate misinformation regarding COVID-19 and develop contextual interventions to address misinformation in a marginalized peri urban slum communities of Landhi town Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: This study was conducted between January and December 2021, in marginalized peri-urban slum dwellers of Muslimabad Colony, Landhi Town Karachi, Pakistan. We used a community-centred co-design methodology embedded within mixed study design to identify misinformation, co-design, test and implement locally acceptable solutions. The co-design methodology involved five stages of the design thinking model: (1) Empathize, (2) Define, (3) Ideate, (4) Prototype, and (5) Test. The project involved active engagement and participation of wide range of stakeholders and community beneficiaries (end users) including local EPI vaccinators, informal healthcare workers, religious leaders (male and female), schoolteachers (male and female), local government representatives, community leaders, housewives, youth, and general population. To develop a trusting relationship, and understand local culture, values, practices, and traditions, we allowed one month of observation period (observe, engage, watch, and listen) in the beginning, followed by door-to-door survey along with focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) at baseline. Co-design workshops (separate for male and female) were conducted at each stage of co-design methodology to design and test locally acceptable solutions.
Conclusion: Community-centred co-design methodology was not only successful in designing, testing, and evaluating locally acceptable solutions but it also actively engaged and empowered the marginalized population living in peri urban slum communities of Karachi, Pakistan.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Proceedings