Community Health Sciences
Background: Financial hardships of out-of-pocket health expenditure (OPHE) is a growing concern for health policy makers in many low and middle-income countries. Spatiotemporal variation between Pakistan's four provinces over 2001-2015 is discussed, which would help comparing existing health services delivery and financial risk protection plans.
Aims: In this paper, we estimate financial hardship of OPHE in Pakistan.
Methods: We use the data sets of the household integrated economic surveys 2001-02, 2005-06, 2010-11 and 2015-16. We estimate OPHE share in household total and non-subsistence expenditure, catastrophic headcount at the threshold of OPHE ≥ 10% of total expenditure or OPHE ≥ 25% of non-subsistence expenditure. We estimate impoverishment of OPHE using national poverty lines. Finally, we explore socioeconomic factors of financial hardships of OPHE.
Results: Over the years, catastrophic headcount and impoverishment of OPHE had decreased at national level (-1.3% points) and in the provinces of Sindh (-7.8% points) and Khyber Pukhtoonkhawa (KPK), (-2.8% points). The province of KPK and the year 2005-06 witnessed the highest incidence of financial catastrophe (26.89% points) and impoverishment (4.8% points) of OPHE. Households in rural areas, in the middle and rich quintiles and those headed by a male were more likely to encounter financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to OPHE.
Conclusion: Inter-provincial variation in financial hardships of OPHE provide aide to provincial level priority setting. The high impact of OPHE in the non-poor, in rural areas, and in KPK calls for enhanced targeting of financial risk protection plans.
Eastern Mediterranean health journal
Malik, M. A.,
Syed, I. A.,
(2021). Spatiotemporal variation and socioeconomic factors of financial hardships of out-of-pocket health expenditure in Pakistan. Eastern Mediterranean health journal, 27(10), 962-973.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_chs_chs/1017
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License