Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences; Paediatrics and Child Health


Background: Caffeine is available in an ampoule, used via parenteral and enteral routes in preterm neonates to treat apnea of prematurity (AOP) in neonates of gestational age ≥ 35-40 weeks. A longer duration of therapy has a higher risk of medication non-adherence due to higher costs and inappropriate dosage forms. Pharmaceutically compounded oral caffeine (PCC) could be an appropriate alternate dosage form. The researchers aimed to determine the impact of PCC on medication-related factors influencing medication adherence (MA) and the frequency of hospital readmission with apnea (HRA) in preterm neonates.
Methods: We conducted a single-center quasi-experimental study for this quality improvement project using PCC among the preterm neonates admitted in a tertiary care level-III NICU at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan, received caffeine therapy, and survived at discharge. The researchers compared pre-PCC data (April-December 2017) with post-PCC data (April-Dec 2018) each for nine months, with three months intervals (January-March 2018) of PCC formulation and implementation phase. The study was conducted according to the SQUIRE2.0 guidelines. The Data were collated on factors influencing MA, including the cost of therapy, medication refill rates, and parental complaints as primary outcome measures. The Risk factors of HRA were included as secondary outcomes.
Results: After PCC implementation cost of therapy was reduced significantly from Rs. 97000.0 (729.0 USD) to Rs. 24500.0 (185.0 USD) (pConclusions: PCC dispensation in the appropriate dosage form at discharge effectively reduced cost, non-adherence to therapy, and risk of hospital readmissions. This neonatal clinical and compounding pharmacist-led model can be replicated in other resource-limiting setting.


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PloS one

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.